Glossary of terms

Glossary of terms.

These terms are the ones commonly used in conjunction with the Nottingham 48, 60 and Dragon models. Other terms are included where they may be of use to those using Nottingham hulls as a basis for a replica model.

Aft: The rear part of the boat.

Aspect Ratio: In relation to sails which can be "high aspect" where the sail is tall and the foot short or "low aspect" where the foot of the sail is longer in relationship to the height.

Backing: A sail is referred to as Backing or Back Winding when the leeward side of a sail becomes subject to undue pressure and the natural aerofoil shape becomes distorted. When seen at the front of the mainsail it indicates a poorly adjusted jib slot.

Backstay: The cord or wire used to locate, and tension the mast from the stern.

Ballast: The weight used in the keel to counteract the effect of the wind in the sails.

Beer: The better way to rehydrate after a hard day chatting and sailing at the lake. A medical imperative as our bodies require fluids for survival.

Bermuda rig: The mainsail is a single triangular shape. Generally associated with a single foresail but not exclusive and multiple foresails can be used.

Boom: The horizontal spar used to locate the foot of a sail.

Bow: The front, or pointy end of the hull.

Bowsprit: A spar extending forward of the bow to allow forward attachment of multiple foresails.

Bowsie: The small plastic item used to adjust the length of cord.

Camber: The curve or profile of the sail which creates the aerofoil shape.

Carriage: The fitting on the deck which allows for some adjustment to the jib swivel or clew on a genoa sail.

Centre of Effort: The theoretical point at which the power of the wind is focussed in the rig.

Centre of lateral resistance: The theoretical point where the hydrodynamic forces are focussed on the submerged portion of the hull.

Chainplate: The fitting on the deck used to locate and adjust the shrouds.

Clew: The lower, aft point where the sail is located. This point can be adjusted to alter the shape of the foot of the sail.

Cord: A theoretical line drawn from the head to the foot of a sail that indicates the position of the deepest camber or belly of the sail.

Cross Trees: See spreaders.

Cutter: General term used for a sloop fitted with more than one foresail. The foresail is flown from the jibstay and the aft jib (staysail) flown from a cutter stay.

Deck plate or Deck eye: A fitting on the deck, normally with an eye for attaching rigging.

Downhaul. The cord used to adjust tension in the luff of a mainsail. (Uphaul)

Fairlead: An eye or other fitting used to change the direction of the sheeting to a sail. On our boats generally the fitting on the deck through which sheeting to the sails passes.

Flying jib: Not used on my models but often by customers building replicas. This is a small jib flown higher up the forestay at the front of the other jibs and often used in conjunction with a bowsprit.

Foot: Lower edge of the sail.

Foresail: The sail or sails attached in front of the mast. (jib, headsail, staysail, genoa)

Forestay: The cord or wire used to locate and tension the mast from the bow. (Not used on J Class models). See jibstay.

Forward: The front part of the boat.

Fractionally rigged: Refers to a boat where the foresail(s) is attached at a point below the top of the mast.

Gaff boom: The secondary boom at the top of the mainsail on a gaff model.

Gaff rig: The main sail is in two parts, split by the gaff boom, consisting of a mainsail and a top sail. This rig is generally associated with older or historic craft.

Genoa: A large foresail with a foot that extends behind the mast. Model yachts generally use a boom to support the foresail but this is not possible with a Genoa as the boom cannot pass the mast.

Gin: A commonly used elixir used to improve overall demeanour. Can be taken after beer. Gin is proven to have many health benefits and should be made available on the NHS.

Gooseneck: The fitting on the mast and mainsail boom which allows for both side movement and also some up and down movement.

Gybe: Changing direction by bringing the stern across the wind.

Halyard: The cord used to hoist a sail.

Head: The top of a sail.

Heel: The action of the boat leaning to leeward

Headsail: The second, forward jib on boats with multiple foresails.

In Irons: The point at which a boat stalls when pointing into the wind, the sails will lose their shape and flutter in the wind and the boat and may even go backwards.

Jib: For the purposes of our models I will use this term to describe the single foresail used with the Bermuda rig.

Jib slot: The opening between the leech of the jib and the mast.

Jib swivel: The point where the jib boom is attached to the deck.

Jibstay: The cord or wire used to locate and tension the mast from the bow which also supports the luff of the jib.

Keel: The lower part of the model, underwater, containing the ballast.

Ketch: A twin masted boat with a shorter aft mizzen mast supporting a mizzen sail. This aft mast is forward of the rudder post. (see Yawl)

Kicker: see Vang.

Leech: The rear or trailing edge of a sail.

Leech line: The cord attached to the back of the jib boom and used to adjust the shape of the leech of the jib (also topping lift).

Lee helm: The tendency for the boat to point away from the wind when tracking a straight line. The opposite of weather helm.

Leeward: The opposite side of the boat to the direction of the wind.

Luff: The forward or leading edge of a sail.

Mainsail: The bigger sail fitted behind the mast.

Mainsail sheeting post: The post between the hatches on our boats used to raise the fairlead to avoid catching on the hatch covers.

Mast: The vertical spar onto which the sails are attached.

Mast tube: The oval tube into which the mast is located. The oval tube allows the mast to pivot forward and back to aid the tuning of the model to different wind conditions.

Mast ram: The mainsail creates a thrust on the mainsail boom which can push the mast forward in the oval tube, distorting the shape of the mast. The mast ram resists this movement.

Mizzen: On a boat with multiple masts, this is the sail on the aft mast.

Mizzen mast: The mast supporting the mizzen (sail)

Outhaul: The adjustment at the clew used to adjust the shape of the foot of the sail.

Peak: The top rear corner of the main gaff sail.

Port: The left hand side of the boat.

Rig: This term refers to the sails, mast, booms and all the fittings attached to the mast.

Roach: The curve cut into a sail normally in the luff and leech and sometimes in the foot.

Rudder: The underwater profile which controls the direction of the boat.

Rudder arm: The fitting at the top of the rudder which reacts to movement from the rudder servo and turns the rudder. On both J models this is specially bent to avoid the ball joints binding up.

Rudder pintle: The lower block attached to the keel on which the rudder is located.

Rudder tube: The upper tube locating the rudder, the rudder bush and rubber O ring.

Running rigging: The cord or rigging that can be moved to change direction of the sails.

Schooner: A boat with two (or more) masts where the aft mast is higher than the forward mast.

Shroud: The wire used to locate, secure and tension the mast from sideways movement.

Sloop: A boat with a single mast, foresail and mainsail.

Spreaders: The attachment on the mast used to spread the shrouds. (see cross trees)

Standing rigging: The fixed rigging on a boat normally supporting the mast.

Starboard: The right hand side of the boat.

Staysail: The jib or foresail attached next to the mast. (see Headsail)

Stern: The back, or blunt end of the hull.

Sheeting: The cord used to control the sails.

Sheeting loop: The cord controlled by the sail winch, attached to the winch drum, which travels up and down the boat to which the loose sheeting is attached. There is always light tension in the loop and so the possibility of cord slipping off the drum is eliminated.

Tack: The lower, forward point locating the sail to the boom.

Tacking: Changing direction by bringing the bow across the wind (see gybe)

Tangle fairy: A malevolent spirit that when you are distracted will fly in and tie up your cord, sheeting and wire in complex and inexplicable knots.

Throat: The gap between the gaff boom and the mast. (Where the top sail is located, if fitted)

Top sail: on a gaff model, the sail at the top of the mast above the mainsail.

Topping lift: See leech line.

Trim weight: The smaller weight that sits on top of the main ballast on the 48.

Turnbuckle: Adjustable fitting used to create tension, normally on the shrouds.

Twist: The shape of the leech of the mainsail controlled by adjustment of the boom vang.

Uphaul: The cord used to adjust the tension in the luff of the mainsail. (Downhaul)

Vang: The fitting under the gooseneck which controls the up and down movement of the mainsail boom (Also referred to as a kicker)

Weather helm: The tendency for the boat to steer itself into the wind and stall. A well designed boat in good trim should be “balanced” and track a straight line when under power. The opposite of Lee helm.

Windward: The side of the boat facing the wind.

Yawl: A twin masted boat with a shorter aft mizzen mast supporting a mizzen sail. This aft mast is behind the rudder post. (see Ketch)